(Q.) Beginning Within The Nucleus, The First Step Leading To The Synthesis Of A Polypeptide Is _____.

Ans: Beginning Within The Nucleus, The First Step Leading To The Synthesis Of A Polypeptide Is transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA.


Each sequence of three nucleotides (so-called codons) encodes for a specific amino acid. A type of RNA called transfer RNA (TRNA) assembles proteins into an amino acid. 

The DNA code contains the genetic information necessary to build cell proteins. The nucleotide sequence of a gene is translated into the amino acid sequence of its corresponding protein.

The mechanism by which cells transform DNA code into protein products is a two-stage process in which the RNA molecules are intermediates. 

 The translation process takes up the information transferred from the DNA to the messenger RNA (RNA) and transforms it into a series of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds.

A type of intermediate substance leaves the nucleus to control protein synthesis, and RNA is a strand of nucleic acid that carries a copy of a single gene’s genetic code into the cytoplasm, where it is transcribed.

The ribosome connects the amino acids in the order indicated in the codons of the RNA molecule to form a polypeptide chain. The ribosome is the site of translation and the RNA polymerase is the mRNA synthesis.

The translation is the second step in converting genes into proteins and takes place in the cytoplasm. The translation process is a translation from one coding nucleotide sequence into another coding amino acid sequence. 

 One of the two strands that make up the double helix of a DNA molecule contains the genetic code present in the DNA molecule; this strand is called the coding strand. It is the strand that is used as the master molecule for the formation of the messenger RNA molecule (mRNA).

The first part of the transcription is to copy the code, i.e. To transfer information from the DNA to the RNA molecule. This polypeptide acts as a photocopy of the gene – with one sequence complementary to one DNA strand and identical to the other.

As we saw in the previous section, the genetic code is redundant: several different codons can be specified for a single amino acid (see below).

Redundancy means that there can be more than one trna or as many amino acids as the base pairs of the tRNA molecule or more than one codon.  

The sequence bases of a gene are its sequences of T, C, and G nucleotides, which translate into amino acid sequences.

A codon is a three-base sequence in an mRNA called a codon that encodes an amino acid. A triplet is a section of three DNA bases in a row that encodes for certain amino acids.   

 Protein synthesis is a complex process in which genetic codes are translated into amino acids linked to polypeptides. The first step, transcription, concerns messenger RNA (RNA), which uses the DNA coding strand as a template.

The DNA double helix dissolves when the bond between two polynucleotide strands is broken. The RNA polymerase brings the free messenger RNA nucleotides back to the messenger RNA, where they are linked to the same sequence of messenger RNA nitrogen bases.

The second enzyme modifies the attached amino acids in such a way that they match the anticodons indicated when they bind to the RNA.

In this two-stage process, the amino acid with the side chain “R” and “S” on the chain is called activated protein synthesis and the enzyme aminoacyl tRNA synthetase is shown.  

 As soon as the mRNA molecule leaves the cell nucleus and switches to protein synthesis, it can be modified in various ways.

The translation of the mRNA sequence in the amino acid sequence of the ribosome is not the end of the protein formation process as indicated above.

Once proteins begin to fold, they are synthesized through a gene expression process in which not only the genetic code is used to produce the sequence of amino acids that make the protein. 

Starting from the core, the first step is to synthesize a polypeptide. In eukaryotic cells, membranes bind organelles, while prokaryotic cells do not. The dominance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is more likely in cells. 

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